Italy keeps tightening its covid 'Green Pass' rules. Here is what you need to know, including the latest updates.
Italy continues to expand the scope of its Green Pass - the digital or paper certificate that shows people have been vaccinated, tested negative or recovered from covid-19 - with the rules tightened regularly.
So where and when is the Green Pass - or its equivalent certificate for those visiting Italy - required? Here are the main points.
Italy's Green Pass, or certificazione verde, was introduced in June and was originally used mainly for travel within the EU and to facilitate access to large events such as weddings or to visit nursing homes.
However since then the scope of the Green Pass - which does not apply to childen under the age of 12 - has been progressively expanded.
In the most significant development, on 16 September the government approved restrictions that will require all workers, in both the public and private sector, to have the Green Pass from 15 October.
The move will affect 23 million workers and will remain in force until 31 December when Italy's covid state of emergency expires.
Workers who violate the rules will face hefty fines or suspension without pay. After five days off work due to not having the Green Pass, employees' absence will be regarded as "unjustified", with their employment suspended and pay frozen, however nobody can be fired.
Those who ignore the restrictions and go to their workplace without a Green Pass risk fines of between €600 and €1,500. Businesses who fail to carry out checks will face fines of between €400 and €1,000.
Restaurants and bars
Since 6 August the pass is required to dine indoors in restaurants but is not needed to consume food or drink at tables outdoors. Neither is it required to have a coffee while standing at the bar, or to pay your bill at the cassa or cash desk.
The Green Pass is required to enter museums, cultural venues and archaeological sites, most of which require advance booking, as well as cinemas, theatres, cultural events and concerts.
The pass is needed to attend sporting competitions, stadiums, gyms and swimming pools.
Spas, amusement parks, leisure centres, gaming halls and casinos all require the Green Pass which is also mandatory for conferences and trade fairs.
Since 1 September the Green Pass has been required to board domestic and international flights, Intercity and high-speed trains, long-distance buses passing through more than two regions, charter buses, and inter-regional ships and ferries (except the Strait of Messina ferry services).
The Green Pass is not required to travel on buses, trams and subways on local public transport networks, or on regional trains.
With the academic year beginning in most of Italy on 13 September, the Green Pass will be need to be shown by all adults who enter schools, including parents and catering and cleaning staff.
As of 1 September, teachers and staff of schools, kindergartens and universities, as well as third level students, need to show the Green Pass, which is not required by school children.
School and university employees who fail to comply with the Green Pass obligations risk penalties similar to the system already in place for doctors and nurses, including the suspension of their employment and pay.