Rome drops 18 points from last year's standard of living survey.
Rome has been ranked 85th in the annual quality of life index of 110 Italian provinces undertaken by the newspaper Italia Oggi in collaboration with the Università La Sapienza di Roma.
Bolzano, in the South Tyrol province of northern Italy, topped the index which has been conducted annually for the last 20 years and is published in the 19 November edition of Italia Oggi.
The index measures a province's quality of life by taking account of 36 indicators reflecting public services, health and the environment, demographics, free time, law and order, standard of living and business and employment.
Bolzano was followed by Trento and Belluno, both in northern Italy. In fourth place came Siena, followed by Pordenone, Parma, Aosta, Sondrio and Treviso, with Cuneo in tenth place. Reggio Emilia came 11th, followed by Ancona, Udine, Verona, Lecco, Ascoli Piceno, Modena, Mantova, Macerata and Arezzo in 20th position.
Milan moved up from 57th to 55th place, Palermo was ranked 106th and Naples in 108th, with Vibo Valentia in the southern Calabria region coming last at 110th.