The new, more stringent, requirements for access permits to the limited circulation area, or ZTL, of the historic centre have already seen a nine per cent reduction in the number of cars authorised to drive in the centre since the first of the year when the new requirements came into effect.

The new regime has increased the prices for all permits, whether for residents or non-residents within the ZTL, and places a limit of one permit per person resident in ZTL zones. It has also done away with indefinite permits.

Permits for most non-residents have been raised by an average of 69 per cent (from